Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)
PCOD Center in Hyderabad With Best Specialists
Prasad Infertility Solutions is one of the Best PCOD clinic in Kukatpally, Hyderabad Most of the women in their Reproductive ages faces PCOS problems. Here, Prasad Infertility Center is the best choice to women, where they can get diagnosed and get treatment from the best recognized specialists team. Prasad Infertility Solutions have the best laboratory with advanced equipments to have diagnostic tests. Our specialists team provides the better treatment plan for PCOD
Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism in women characterized by irregular or no periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. The condition was named because of finding of enlarged ovaries containing small cysts (poly cystic ovaries). PCOD has also been referred to as stein-leventhal syndrome.
Differences between normal ovary and polycystic ovaries
According to the survey conducted by the Metropolis healthcare Ltd in India, 17.60% womens of age 15 to 30 years are having PCOD.
Causes of PCOD?
- ❖The periods may be light because of not ovulating.
- ❖The periods may be extremely heavy because the lining of the uterus (Endometrium) continues to thicken when the monthly cycle doesn’t happen. Since the lining is shed during a menstrual period, there is a heavy or more to shed when it is menstruated.
1. Hormonal imbalance :
The hormonal imbalances behind PCOD put women at higher than normal risk for a wide range of well beyond the reproductive system.
(i) Irregular Menstrual cycles :The reason for irregular ovulation or no menstruation is a direct effect of hormone imbalance.
As the ovaries donot release an egg (ovum) that may leading to infertility in women.
2. Insulin Resistance :
In insulin resistance, body is not able to send enough glucose from blood in to the cells; this stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin to help glucose levels even in the body. The extra insulin may have negative effects leading to the shutting down or closing of the ovaries and leading to higher than normal levels of male hormones (Androgens, Testosterone). Increased Male hormones interfere with normal ovulation by altering LH (Luteinizing Hormone) & Gonadotropin releasing hormone which helps in development and release of an egg (Ovum).
3. Genetics :Family members of women who have PCOD are also at higher risk for developing the same metabolic abnormalities.
4. Obesity :Obesity and overweight status may contribute to insulin resistance which further leads to increase the male hormones.
Signs and Symptoms of PCOD?
- ❖Delay of normal menstruation ( Primary amenorrhea)
- ❖HPresence of fewer than normal menstrual periods (Oligomenorrhea)
- ❖Absence of menstruation for more than 3 months (Secondary amenorrhea)
- ❖Pimples (Acne)
- ❖Excess hair growth (Hirsutism) on the body include upper lip, chin, around nipples and also on the lower abdomen.
- ❖Weight gain
- ❖Dark patches of skin (Acanthosis nigricans) can form in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
- The pathophysiology of PCOD encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors, such as disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and hyperinsulinaemia. Exaggerated gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility results in hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH), which has effects both on ovarian androgen production.
- ❖Increased insulin in the body causes ovaries to produce more testosterone and alter the development of follicles needed for ovulation which leads to inhibition or delayed ovulation.
- ❖Adiponectin( hormone that control lipid and glucose levels in the blood) the higher concentration of this hormone are usually evident in women affected by PCOD.
- Genetic inheritance: CYP17, CYP19, FST and INSR are the genes that are suspected to cause PCOD. Research is conducting to identify the exact gene that leads to PCOD.
Diagnostic tests for PCOD?
- ❖Blood tests: Blood test is preferred to identify the hormonal imbalance such as Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone( LH), Testosterone, Estrogens and Sex hormone binding globulin (SBGH).
- ❖USG Abdomen and Pelvis : A pelvic ultrasound (transvaginal and/or pelvic/abdominal) is used to evaluate enlarged ovaries. Ultrasounds are often used to look for cysts in the ovaries and to see if the internal structures appear normal. In PCOD, the ovaries may be 1.5 to 3 times larger than normal and characteristically have more than 12 or more follicles per ovary measuring 2 to 9 mm in diameter. Often the cysts are lined up on the surface the ovaries
- ❖FBS: Fasting blood sugar test is done to identify the increased glucose levels in blood.
- ❖Lipid profile test
- ❖Pelvic Examination: During a pelvic examination, your health care professional will check for lumps or changes in the shape of vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and rectum.The health care professional also will use a speculum to open vagina to look at your and take samples for a Pap test.
Complications of PCOD
PCOD negatively impacts fertility because women with this condition do not ovulate or release an egg, each month due to over production of estrogen as well as testosterone precursors by the ovaries. Because of ovulation doesn’t occur regularly, periods become irregular and increased levels of testosterone can effect oocyte quality and inhibit ovulation, lead to insulin resistance and increase risk such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
b. Insulin resistance & Hyperandrogenism:
Due to the insulin resistance pancreas get stimulated and produce more insulin to uptake the glucose from blood into the cells. In this process the extra insulin hormone activates the ovarian theca cells and increases the biosynthesis of ovarian androgens (Testosterone). This testosterone causes arrest of the ovarian follicle development and leads to the symptoms like acne; abnormal hair growth on upper lip, chin, cheeks, around the nipples and also on the lower abdomen.
c. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:
During the induction of insulin resistance (such as occurs with a high-calorie diet, irregular medication, or physical inactivity), increased glucagon levels and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels accompany glucose intolerance. In the progression from normal to abnormal glucose tolerance, postprandial blood glucose levels increase first. Eventually, fasting hyperglycemia develops as suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis fails.
d. Cardiovascular disease:
Having PCOD increases a woman’s chances of getting heart-related complications.
This is due to the higher levels of insulin and high levels of triglycerides that have been associated with PCOS are known to increase one’s risk for high cholesterol, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. These conditions can increase your risk for Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Heart attack and Stroke.
Women with PCOD produce too much insulin, or the insulin they produce does not work as it should. The inability of insulin to function normally is one reason why women with PCOD tend to gain weight or have a hard time losing weight. For others, PCOD develops later on, following substantial weight gain. What is clear is that women affected by obesity have a greater risk for PCOD and women with PCOD have a greater risk for obesity.
f. Endometrial Cancer:
Women with PCOD and other factors that increase estrogen levels (including obesity, diabetes) are more likely to develop endometrial cancer,though rare indeed is a serious problem. Progesterone is the hormone responsible for the monthly "shedding" process of the endometrium or the lining of the uterus. This process results in monthly menstruation, which many women with PCOS don't have because of insufficient progesterone levels. Without progesterone and monthly periods, the endometrium becomes thick and the cells may become altered, leading to a precancerous condition called endometrial hyperplasia. Eventually, endometrial cancer may develop if PCOS is left untreated
Treatment of PCOD
Here in Prasad’s infertility solutions we provide the patient with the better treatment plan for PCOD that includes pharmacological treatment(by medication) and non pharmacological medication (Life style modifications, Diet chart, Regular exercise). In case of skin and obesity problems, we provide the patient with dermatology consultation and dietician consultation.