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Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)

PCOD Center in Hyderabad With Best Specialists

Prasad Infertility Solutions is one of the Best PCOD clinic in Kukatpally, Hyderabad Most of the women in their Reproductive ages faces PCOS problems. Here, Prasad Infertility Center is the best choice to women, where they can get diagnosed and get treatment from the best recognized specialists team. Prasad Infertility Solutions have the best laboratory with advanced equipments to have diagnostic tests. Our specialists team provides the better treatment plan for PCOD


Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism in women characterized by irregular or no periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. The condition was named because of finding of enlarged ovaries containing small cysts (poly cystic ovaries). PCOD has also been referred to as stein-leventhal syndrome.

polycstic ovarian disease (pcod), best pcod clinic in kukatpally

Differences between normal ovary and polycystic ovaries

Difference between normal ovary and polycystic ovary

According to the survey conducted by the Metropolis healthcare Ltd in India, 17.60% womens of age 15 to 30 years are having PCOD.


Causes of PCOD?

    1. Hormonal imbalance :

    The hormonal imbalances behind PCOD put women at higher than normal risk for a wide range of well beyond the reproductive system.

    (i) Irregular Menstrual cycles :
    The reason for irregular ovulation or no menstruation is a direct effect of hormone imbalance.
  • ❖The periods may be light because of not ovulating.
  • ❖The periods may be extremely heavy because the lining of the uterus (Endometrium) continues to thicken when the monthly cycle doesn’t happen. Since the lining is shed during a menstrual period, there is a heavy or more to shed when it is menstruated.
  • (ii) Infertility:

    As the ovaries donot release an egg (ovum) that may leading to infertility in women.

    2. Insulin Resistance :

    In insulin resistance, body is not able to send enough glucose from blood in to the cells; this stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin to help glucose levels even in the body. The extra insulin may have negative effects leading to the shutting down or closing of the ovaries and leading to higher than normal levels of male hormones (Androgens, Testosterone). Increased Male hormones interfere with normal ovulation by altering LH (Luteinizing Hormone) & Gonadotropin releasing hormone which helps in development and release of an egg (Ovum).

    3. Genetics :

    Family members of women who have PCOD are also at higher risk for developing the same metabolic abnormalities.

    4. Obesity :

    Obesity and overweight status may contribute to insulin resistance which further leads to increase the male hormones.

Signs and Symptoms of PCOD?

  • ❖Delay of normal menstruation ( Primary amenorrhea)
  • ❖HPresence of fewer than normal menstrual periods (Oligomenorrhea)
  • ❖Absence of menstruation for more than 3 months (Secondary amenorrhea)
  • ❖Pimples (Acne)
  • ❖Excess hair growth (Hirsutism) on the body include upper lip, chin, around nipples and also on the lower abdomen.
  • ❖Weight gain
  • ❖Dark patches of skin (Acanthosis nigricans) can form in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
pcod symptoms
Pathophysiology
  • The pathophysiology of PCOD encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors, such as disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and hyperinsulinaemia. Exaggerated gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility results in hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH), which has effects both on ovarian androgen production.
  • ❖Increased insulin in the body causes ovaries to produce more testosterone and alter the development of follicles needed for ovulation which leads to inhibition or delayed ovulation.
  • ❖Adiponectin( hormone that control lipid and glucose levels in the blood) the higher concentration of this hormone are usually evident in women affected by PCOD.
  • Genetic inheritance: CYP17, CYP19, FST and INSR are the genes that are suspected to cause PCOD. Research is conducting to identify the exact gene that leads to PCOD.
 PCOD treatment in kukatpally

Diagnostic tests for PCOD?

  • ❖Blood tests: Blood test is preferred to identify the hormonal imbalance such as Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone( LH), Testosterone, Estrogens and Sex hormone binding globulin (SBGH).
  • ❖USG Abdomen and Pelvis : A pelvic ultrasound (transvaginal and/or pelvic/abdominal) is used to evaluate enlarged ovaries. Ultrasounds are often used to look for cysts in the ovaries and to see if the internal structures appear normal. In PCOD, the ovaries may be 1.5 to 3 times larger than normal and characteristically have more than 12 or more follicles per ovary measuring 2 to 9 mm in diameter. Often the cysts are lined up on the surface the ovaries
  • ❖FBS: Fasting blood sugar test is done to identify the increased glucose levels in blood.
  • ❖Lipid profile test
  • ❖Pelvic Examination: During a pelvic examination, your health care professional will check for lumps or changes in the shape of vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and rectum.The health care professional also will use a speculum to open vagina to look at your and take samples for a Pap test.
 pcod treatment

Complications of PCOD

a. Infertility:

PCOD negatively impacts fertility because women with this condition do not ovulate or release an egg, each month due to over production of estrogen as well as testosterone precursors by the ovaries. Because of ovulation doesn’t occur regularly, periods become irregular and increased levels of testosterone can effect oocyte quality and inhibit ovulation, lead to insulin resistance and increase risk such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

best pcod clinic in kukatpally

b. Insulin resistance & Hyperandrogenism:

Due to the insulin resistance pancreas get stimulated and produce more insulin to uptake the glucose from blood into the cells. In this process the extra insulin hormone activates the ovarian theca cells and increases the biosynthesis of ovarian androgens (Testosterone). This testosterone causes arrest of the ovarian follicle development and leads to the symptoms like acne; abnormal hair growth on upper lip, chin, cheeks, around the nipples and also on the lower abdomen.

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c. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

During the induction of insulin resistance (such as occurs with a high-calorie diet, irregular medication, or physical inactivity), increased glucagon levels and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels accompany glucose intolerance. In the progression from normal to abnormal glucose tolerance, postprandial blood glucose levels increase first. Eventually, fasting hyperglycemia develops as suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis fails.

d. Cardiovascular disease:

Having PCOD increases a woman’s chances of getting heart-related complications.

This is due to the higher levels of insulin and high levels of triglycerides that have been associated with PCOS are known to increase one’s risk for high cholesterol, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. These conditions can increase your risk for Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Heart attack and Stroke.

Cardiovascular disease

e. Obesity:

Women with PCOD produce too much insulin, or the insulin they produce does not work as it should. The inability of insulin to function normally is one reason why women with PCOD tend to gain weight or have a hard time losing weight. For others, PCOD develops later on, following substantial weight gain. What is clear is that women affected by obesity have a greater risk for PCOD and women with PCOD have a greater risk for obesity.

f. Endometrial Cancer:

Women with PCOD and other factors that increase estrogen levels (including obesity, diabetes) are more likely to develop endometrial cancer,though rare indeed is a serious problem. Progesterone is the hormone responsible for the monthly "shedding" process of the endometrium or the lining of the uterus. This process results in monthly menstruation, which many women with PCOS don't have because of insufficient progesterone levels. Without progesterone and monthly periods, the endometrium becomes thick and the cells may become altered, leading to a precancerous condition called endometrial hyperplasia. Eventually, endometrial cancer may develop if PCOS is left untreated

Endometrial-Cancer

Treatment of PCOD

Here in Prasad’s infertility solutions we provide the patient with the better treatment plan for PCOD that includes pharmacological treatment(by medication) and non pharmacological medication (Life style modifications, Diet chart, Regular exercise). In case of skin and obesity problems, we provide the patient with dermatology consultation and dietician consultation.

FAQs About PCOD

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Polycystic ovarian disorder (PCOD) is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism in women characterized by irregular or no periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. The condition was named because of finding of enlarged ovaries containing small cysts (poly cystic ovaries). PCOD has also been referred to as stein-leventhal syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). According to the survey conducted by the Metropolis healthcare Ltd in India, 17.60% womens of age 15 to 30 years are having PCOD.

best PCOD clinic in kukatpally
warning signs of pcos

1. Hormonal imbalance :

The hormonal imbalances behind PCOD put women at higher than normal risk for a wide range of well beyond the reproductive system.

    (i) Irregular Menstrual cycles :
    The reason for irregular ovulation or no menstruation is a direct effect of hormone imbalance.
  • ❖The periods may be light because of not ovulating.
  • ❖The periods may be extremely heavy because the lining of the uterus (Endometrium) continues to thicken when the monthly cycle doesn’t happen. Since the lining is shed during a menstrual period, there is a heavy or more to shed when it is menstruated.
  • (ii) Infertility:
    As the ovaries donot release an egg (ovum) that may leading to infertility in women.

    2. Insulin Resistance :

    In insulin resistance, body is not able to send enough glucose from blood in to the cells; this stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin to help glucose levels even in the body. The extra insulin may have negative effects leading to the shutting down or closing of the ovaries and leading to higher than normal levels of male hormones (Androgens, Testosterone).
    Increased Male hormones interfere with normal ovulation by altering LH (Luteinizing Hormone) & Gonadotropin releasing hormone which helps in development and release of an egg (Ovum).

3. Genetics :

Family members of women who have PCOD are also at higher risk for developing the same metabolic abnormalities.

4. Obesity :

Obesity and overweight status may contribute to insulin resistance which further leads to increase the male hormones.
best pcod clinic in hydeabad

There is not one special test that can diagnose PCOS. Your doctor will start by asking questions about your medical history of symptoms such as irregular or skipped periods, weight changes, hair changes, and acne. Your doctor will also ask about your family’s medical history. Your doctor will check your weight and vitals and do a complete physical exam. A number of lab tests may be ordered including blood sugar and androgen levels. A sonogram or ultrasound(USG) may also be done to evaluate the ovaries. These tests help to make a diagnosis of PCOS and exclude other causes for your symptoms. Your primary doctor may also refer you to a hormone specialist, or endocrinologist, to help direct the work-up needed to rule out other causes and confirm the diagnosis of PCOS.

pcod treatment in kukatpally

There are many ways you can decrease or eliminate PCOS symptoms and feel better. Your doctor may offer different medicines that can treat symptoms such as irregular periods, acne, excess hair, and elevated blood sugar. Fertility treatments are available to help women get pregnant. Losing as little as 5% excess weight can help women ovulate more regularly and lessen other PCOS symptoms. The ideal way to do this is through nutrition and exercise. You may feel that it is difficult to lose excess weight and keep it off, but it is important to continue the effort. Your efforts help reduce the risk for developing serious health complications that can impact women with PCOS much sooner than women without PCOS.

pcod stages

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of female infertility, affecting an estimated 5 million women. But you can get pregnant with PCOS. There are a number of effective fertility treatments available, from Clomid to gonadotropins to IVF. Most women will be able to conceive with a combination of lifestyle changes and fertility drugs. While some women with PCOS will need IVF, the great majority will get pregnant using lower-tech fertility treatments.

There are a number of different medical therapies used to manage the different symptoms of PCOS, including for periods, fertility, excess hair, acne and weight. These therapies may include:

  • ❖The oral contraceptive pill
  • ❖Insulin sensitising drugs such as Metformin
  • ❖Hormones that are called gonadotrophins
  • ❖Testosterone lowering drugs
  • ❖Antidepressants
  • ❖Anti- anxiety drugs.

If you are under the age of 35, ovulate regularly (even though you have PCOS), and you and your partner have no other medical conditions that affect your fertility, the likelihood is that pregnancy will occur within a year and probably even sooner. If either you or your partner has other medical conditions that also affect your fertility, like a lowered sperm count or uterine fibroids, it might take even longer than a year. Natural fertility also starts to significantly decline for women around age 35 and it declines even more substantially by age 40. While some women do conceive naturally into their forties, the need for fertility drugs or technology is much more likely.

Women with PCOS experience a combination of symptoms that can lead to other serious conditions such as obesity, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and infertility.

pcod treatment

Patients often have a hard time understanding the difference between PCOS and ovarian cysts.

Three factors that explain the difference between PCOS and ovarian cysts When a patient receives a diagnosis, it’s helpful for her to understand the difference between PCOS and ovarian cysts.

  • ❖PCOS causes multiple symptoms while ovarian cysts often do not: PCOS causes irregular ovulation, irregular menstruation, fertility problems, acne and oily skin, excessive hair growth on the face and body, darkened patches of thick skin, multiple fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries and obesity. On the other hand, ovarian cysts may not cause any symptoms, or they may cause mild to severe pain. In rare cases, ovarian cysts can cause twisted ovaries, which is a dangerous condition that requires surgery.
  • ❖No single tests can diagnose PCOS, but doctors have definitive ways to diagnose ovarian cysts: Physician may diagnose PCOS using a combination of methods, including documenting the patient’s symptoms, performing blood test and completing a physical examination and may also recommend an ultrasound. Physicians often diagnose ovarian cysts during a physical examination or ultrasound.
  • ❖PCOS symptoms require treatment, but ovarian cysts may be left untreated: The final difference between PCOS and ovarian cysts is the treatment. Patients who experience the symptoms of PCOS must be treated in order to improve, but not all ovarian cysts need treatment. In some cases, physicians leave the cysts untreated and simply monitor them until they resolve on their own. In more serious cases, patients may need surgery.
food to eat if you have pcod

There is no “one thing you should be eating” to manage your PCOS. The key is to eliminate gluten and processed soy, reduce dairy and eat a diet rich in whole foods. You want to choose foods that nourish your body and reduce inflammation. Changing your relationship with food can be a challenge.

food to avoid if you have pcod

Exercise (or “movement’) is one area of wellness that many women just don’t spend enough time on. Exercise can help your moods, raise energy levels and even help balance hormones. As with so many issues that surround PCOS, there is no “best way” to exercise with PCOS. You need to find a way to “move it” every day in a way that you enjoy. Try taking a walk at lunch, a yoga class, or swimming.

best way” to exercise with PCOS